Sauropods are the largest dinosaurs ever to have lived- in fact, they were the largest animals ever to have lived on land. There are three species on Isla Sorna- Apatosaurus, Mamenchisaurus, and the largest animal ever re-created by InGen- Brachiosaurus.

Sauropods are herbivorous quadrupeds most noteable for (apart for their immense sizes) their long necks. Other features saurpods share include thick, pillar-like limbs; blunt feet with five toes, three of which bare sharp claws (including a large, heavy “thumb” claw); small heads in comparison with their body sizes with nostrils on the forehead instead of on the snout; and teeth which, depending on the species, are shaped like pencils, spoons, or chisels.

Being so large, sauropods require an enormous amount of food daily to fuel their massive bodies, thus sauropods feed almost continuously. In addition, the sauropod hearts are huge in order to pump blood around their bodies and to carry oxygen all the way to their small brains. The animals' sizes also enables adult Sauropods to have little to fear from most carnivores, however the pack-hunting Giganotosaurus is a specialized predator of sauropods, and is a terror to even the largest adult Brachiosaurus.

After mating, females tend to congregate together with their own kind in order to lay their sphere-shaped eggs, preferably in soil or vegetation. Compared to the adults’ size, the eggs and hatchlings are tiny. The adults risk accidentally stepping on the hatchlings and the eggs, so they have no choice but to abandon the nests. The eggs and baby sauropods are vulnerable to predators, therefore out of several hundred eggs laid, only five or six animals may survive to adulthood.

Once grown large enough, the young sauropods will seek protection in herds of their own kind. They will remain close to the larger individuals or in the centre of a herd where predators cannot reach.
The three sauropod species on Isla Sorna are constantly on the move in their endless search for food.

Apatosaurus excelus Edit

Length: 70 ft (21.3 m)
Height: 15 ft (4.6 m)
Weight: 30 tons

Sometimes called Brontosaurus, these sauropods are the second-biggest dinosaur on Isla Sorna, after Brachiosaurus (Mamenchisaurus is longer, although not as heavily-built). Apatosaurus is a heavily-built animal, with forelimbs slightly longer than its hindegs, a small head in comparison with its body-size and jaws lined with chisel-like teeth. The tail is long and whip-like, and is held clear off the ground.

Apatosaurus live in medium-sized herds, and they inhabit areas of wide-open spaces where they browse on low-growing vegetation often close to other herds of sauropod and smaller ornithopods. The younger Apatosaurs remain in the centre of the herd while the much larger, older individuals remain on the outside- this arrangement helps to protect the vulnerable juveniles from predators.

The Apatosaurus’ tail has a long, thin, tapering end, and it has many uses. These include counterbalancing the animal’s long neck; keeping contact with other Apatosaurs (by touching the backs of other individuals with their tail tips almost continuously); whip-cracking and using the resulting breaking of the sound barrier for long-distance communication; and as a visual communicator (individuals constantly wave their tails in the air; reminding others of their location and thus helping to keep the herd together). The tail is most famously used as a weapon against predators- even though the full-grown adults have little to fear against predators (apart from the pack-hunting super-predator Giganotosaurus) due to their immense size, the young are vulnerable. The adults protect themselves and their young by lashing out at predators with their whip-like tail, inflicting painful (and often discouraging) blows.
As well as using their tails as a communication device, Apatosaurus also make distinctive bellowing and winnying calls.

Coloration and sexual differences Edit

Males and females are a grey colour with darker grey markings on the back. Juveniles have a lighter grey body.

Brachiosaurus brancai Edit

Length: 82 ft (25 m)
Height: 50 ft (15.2)
Weight: 80 tons

Brachiosaurus is by far the largest dinosaur on Isla Sorna- indeed the biggest animal cloned by InGen. Yet despite its enormous weight and volume, Brachiosaurus is surprisingly graceful when in motion. Its long neck allows the animal to reach heights of up to 14-15 metres (even higher when the dinosaur rises up on its hind legs), enabling it to feed on treetop foliage inaccessible to all other herbivorous dinosaurs. As well as its huge size and long neck, this sauropod is also easily recognizeable for its considerably longer forelegs than its hindlegs (resulting in its distinctive downward-sloping back) and its relatively short tail. The Brachiosaur’s head is tiny and high-crested, with nostrils on the forehead, and teeth shaped like chisels.

Brachiosaurus can be found in wide-open spaces where there is sufficient tree coverage, often close to a water-source such as a lake or a river, where they may bathe. They live in groups of 10-15 individuals dominated by a single male. Individuals are well-spread out so that they do not overgraze. Brachiosaurs keep in constant contact with one another over long distance through a variety of musical honks and bugles, as well as infrasonic booms which can travel incredible distances. Their song-like calls are also used to settle disputes between individuals, and to warn others of approaching danger.

Brachiosaurus are gentle giants which enjoy the company of other species of herbivorous dinosaur, such as hadrosaurs and other sauropods, and they can often be found grazing together in harmony. Fights between Brachiosaurs are practically non-existant, with disputes being settled by their calls. Being so large, Brachiosaurs typically have little to fear from carnivores smaller than a Ceratosaurus and unless they have vulnerable infants, predators tend not to bother them. However, only the giant pack-hunter Giganotosaurus is a threat to the full-grown adults.
Female Brachiosaurus will congregate together to lay their eggs in the nesting grounds, before abandoning them to their fate. The adults may stay nearby in order to discourage predators; however a majority of the eggs and hatchlings are taken by small nest raiders such as Ornitholestes and Oviraptor- this helps to keep the numbers of these gigantic dinosaurs under control. When grown large enough, the young Brachiosaurs join the feeding groups of adults, and although still vulnerable to canivores, are protected by the larger individuals.

Coloration and sexual differences Edit

Males have mainly a pale green and gray mottling, with pale yellow striping on their bodies and a red crest. Males also tend to be larger and slightly bulkier than the females. Females have brown and gray mottling, with some individuals having darker striping. The juveniles of both sexes are the same as the female.

Mamenchisaurus constuctus Edit

Length: 82 ft (25 m)
Height: 25 ft (7.6 m)
Weight: 30 tons

Mamenchisaurus has the longest neck of any other dinosaur on the island, which, at 11 metres, is almost half the length of the entire animal. Their long necks allow the Mamenchisaurus to feed on a variety of low and medium-growing vegetation from a stationary position.

Mamenchis’ preferred habitat are wide open spaces with plenty of vegetation. They are less social than either Apatosaurus or Brachiosaurus, living in small groups or even alone. They are also rarer than their two other sauropod contemporaries, and not as noisy. Their most common call is a deep bellow, and typical to sauropods, they also produce infrasounds to communicate over long distances.
Mamenchisaurus is a gentle herbivore which tends to avoid confrontation. Although the young are vulnerable to many types of predators, the adults are protected by their great size. However, the adults may be hunted by packs of the super-predator Giganotosaurus- Mamenchis will try to defend themselves by rising up onto their hind legs, before falling forward and pounding the ground (or a predator) with their front legs.

Coloration and sexual differences Edit

Males and females have a brown mottling with lighter brown back striping. The juveniles of both sexes have lighter brown mottling all over their bodies.